Публикация материалов

Темы исследований

Наш баннер

Мы будем благодарны, если Вы установите наш баннер!
Баннер сайта Обучонок
Код баннера:
<a href="https://obuchonok.ru/" target="_blank"> <img src="https://obuchonok.ru/banners/banob2.gif" width="88" height="31" alt="Обучонок. Исследовательские работы и проекты учащихся"></a>
Все баннеры...
образование в россии
Тематика: 
Иностранный язык
Автор работы: 
Каленых Софья
Руководитель проекта: 
Верисоцкая Ирина Леонидовна
Учреждение: 
МОУ СОШ п. Новопавловка
Класс: 
9

В процессе проведения индивидуальной исследовательской работы на тему «Школьное образование в России и Великобритании» автор изучает историю школьного образования в России и Великобритании, дает его определение, находит общее и отличия в развитии школьного образования в этих странах.

Подробнее о работе:


В готовом исследовательском проекте по иностранному языку «School education in Russia and Great Britain» автор подробно описывает, как рассчитывается учебный год в России и в Великобритании, когда впервые появились школьные здания и школьная форма на территориях России и Англии, проводит опрос и определяет, какое мнение у российских студентов о школьном образовании в двух исследуемых странах.

В ученическом проекте по английскому языку на тему «School education in Russia and Great Britain» ученица 9 класса представила анализ информации по теме, полученной из Интернета, книг и журналов, определила сходство в образовании России и Великобритании, провела анкетирование среди учащихся школы и выяснила, довольны ли они своим образованием.

Автор детской исследовательской работы по иностранному языку на тему «Школьное образование в России и Великобритании» предполагает, что если мы проанализируем школьное образование в России и Великобритании, то сможем обнаружить сходство школьного образования в этих странах и устранить имеющиеся недостатки в нашем школьном образовании.

Content

Introduction
1. School education in Russia and in Great Britain
1.1. The history of school education in Great Britain and Russia
1.2. Characteristics of school education in Russia and in Great Britain
1.3. School year in Russia and in Great Britain
1.4. The appearance of school buildings in Russia and in Great Britain
1.5. School uniform in Russia and Great Britain
2. The opinions of Russian students about school education in Russia and Great Britain
2.1. The methods of the research
2.2. The plan of the research work
2.3. The questionnaire
2.4. The results of the research work
The sources of education

Introduction


Education is an important part of modern life. Being educated means to know a lot of necessary and useful things for life and every decent person studies at school. One of the most important focus of school is to maintain the continuity of social life by handing down knowledge, traditions, experiences, values and customs of the society from one generation to another.

The progress of the society depends upon the transmission of knowledge and skills from one generation to another. This important function is performed by the school. For each of us the word “school” means something unusual and particular. We come to school at the age of 6 and for 11 years, school becomes the foundation of our future life.

We learn to read, to write, we learn to understand the difference between the “good” and “evil”. School helps us to understand ourselves better. And everybody remembers his school all his life. School takes a big part in our life.

The practical use: this research work can be used at the English lessons, lessons of history and literature.

The aim of the research work: to compare the school education in Russia and Great Britain.

The tasks:

  • to find out information from the Internet, books and magazines;
  • to find similarities in education of Russia and Great Britain;
  • to conduct a questionnaire among students of school;
  • to make a presentation of results.

The object of the research is school education in Russia and Great Britain.

The subject of the research work is similarities of school education in Russia and Great Britain.

The hypothesis: if we analyze school education in Russia and Great Britain we can find out similarities of school education in these countries.

Vocabulary. We have some definition for better understanding of this research work.

School is an institution for educating of children. School is also place for kids to learn about life before they go into the real world. School also helps pupils to learn many things so that they can face a lot of problems in life.

The system of education is a model, it combines educational aims for studying of every person.

Infant schools is a school for children at the age of 5 to 7 years old in Great Britain. Junior schools is the first stage of general education, the purpose of which is the development of students ' basic general knowledge, providing the development of cognitive abilities and social communication, as well as the formation of basic skills of educational activity.

A school uniform is a set of standardized clothes worn primarily for an educational institution.

Education is a process of education and training of people for the benefit of society, the individual and the state, which sets and levels of education.

The development of school education in Great Britain and Russia


The history of education goes back into the past. Both countries always tried to educate children, they had no good opportunities. Schools of Great Britain had three-century history. In the early Middle Ages the first schools were originated in Great Britain, children studied Latin grammar.

The churches in Great Britain were cultural and educational centers. In the XIX century people began to organize the system of compulsory and free education. In the XX century there were three types of school: grammar, comprehensive and technical.

In Russia schools were opened in monasteries and churches.In the XIV century children were taught to read and write, there were subjects as singing and religion. Girls are also taught to sew and knit.

The children of noble people could teach philosophy, grammar and foreign languages. In the XVIII century there were different schools for all ordinary people in Russia. There was an attempt to form the state system of education. At the end of the XIX century there were a lot of schools in Russia, but home education was still common.

Conclusion: The systems of education in Russia and in Great Britain has been developing for a long time but there were changes of teaching. But Russian and British people did a lot to make education available for children.

Characteristics of school education in Russia and Great Britain

Education in Great Britain is free and compulsory for all children, but schooling is not. Parents have the right to educate their children at home if they wish. British children are required by law to have education while they are 16 years old. The right to have education is guaranteed by the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

There are different types of school. Main categories of schools are state schools, private and religious schools.

Compulsory education begins at the age of 5 when children go to primary school. Primary education lasts for 6 years. It is divided into two periods: infant schools and junior schools. At infant schools children don't have real classes. They play and learn through playing.

But when pupils are 7 years old the real studying begins. They don't play as much as they did it at infant school. Now they have real classes, where they sit at desks, read, write and answer the teacher's questions. Students are divided into A, B, C and D streams according to their abilities. At the end of primary education children had to pass 11-plus examination. Good results of examination gives them admission to various types of secondary schools.

After this stage children are sent to secondary schools in the first form according to their abilities and they study there until 16 years old. They study many subjects. They have Drama lessons, the lessons of management and photojournalism. Students can choose such subjects as History or Geography.

The discipline is very strict at schools. Here some punishments that are used in British schools. Lines, detention, report, suspension, exclusion are the most common. InRussia we havedetention and report.

Pupils pass Standard Assessment Tasks at the age of 7, 11 and 14 years old. At the age of 16 years old students take the General Certificate of Secondary Education examination and they leave school if they want to finish studying. If pupils are successful, they can make their choice: they can go to the 6th forms or they may either go to colleges.

If they continue studies in the sixth form at school they pass national examination called “A” levels at the age of 18 years old. They take the General Certificate of Secondary Education/ A-level. They need “A” levels to enter the University. Universities usually select students basing on their A-level results and an interview. The mark for Core subjects should be “C” when students enter the University.

The studying takes eleven years. Preschools (kindergartens) are not compulsory. Compulsory education starts from 6(7) to 15 years old. There are different types of school: state schools, specialized schools, lyceums, gymnasia, private schools. There are three stages of education: primary, middle and upper.

At the beginning children study at elementary school for four years. They learn to count, read and write. Children also study a foreign language beginning from the second grade.

The fifth form means the beginning of middle stage of secondary education. The children study different subjects: Algebra, Biology, Literature, Chemistry, Physics and ICT, Russian, Literature, Technology, Physical education and others. In our country there is a nine-year compulsory education, in order to enter the University pupils should study for two years more.

The 9th form is time for students to pass examinations. They are awarded a Certificate of Basic General Education. They have a choice to enter the 10th form of a general secondary school (upper education) or enroll in a specialized vocational schools.

Students choose subjects for their better learning in the 10th and 11th form.

In the 11th grade students pass the State final Examination, they are awarded by a Certificate of Secondary General Education. They can enter the University or institution of higher education. You can see the levels of education in Russia and Great Britain.

We came to the conclusion that there are state and private schools in countries. We should know they are attended by different percentage of school population. In Britain 95% of students go to state schools and 5% to the private or public. Some private schools are very famous, such as Eton, Harrow, Rugby and Winchester. Most private schools are either for boys and girls. In Russia 99% of students go to state schools, 1% of students study in private schools.

Conclusion: We have found not only similarities but differences of school education in Russia and Great Britain.

School year in Russia and in Great Britain


In Russia school year lasts for 35 weeks. The year is comprised of 4 terms. The vacations are in November (1 week), in January (2 weeks), in March (1 week) and 3 months in summer. The school year begins in September, ends in May and students pass examinations in June. The school year in Great Britain is about 39 weeks. The school year begins in early September (school never begins on Monday) and continues to July. British schools have six terms (semesters), separated by holidays (vacations). The main school holidays last for 2 weeks on Christmas, 2 weeks in spring and 6 weeks in summer (end of July and the whole of August). Children go to school 5 days a week.

In Russia school day normally starts at 8 o’clock in the morning and ends in the afternoon. Students attend classes for 5 days a week, some schools require extra study on Saturdays. A typical lesson lasts for 40 - 45 minutes with a 5 -15-minute break. At primary school pupils have 4-5 classes a day. Their number increases to 6 lessons at secondary school and to 7 at the senior school.

There is a large number of school clubs, sports sections at Russian schools.

The school day in Great Britain is from 9 o’clock to half past three. Pupils go to the registration. Then there is assembly. All schools organize a short daily meeting for the whole school to give important information. There are four classes lasting one hour each or 8 ones lasting 30 minutes each or 8 lessons with different length. The five minutes between lessons is not a break.

Pupils must use this time to move quickly to next lesson. During the lunch hour pupils have time to do many things besides eating. They can read in a library or participate at clubs or sport or go home for lunch. There are nearly 90 extra activities at schools in Great Britain. The afternoon begins with registrations again. School finishes at half past three. In some school lunch is not so long.

In Russia children get marks as numbers and score. In Great Britain pupils use own marks as letters. In Britain at the end of each term school sends a report to parents. It has the pupil’s marks in all the subjects and the teacher’s comments on the pupil’s progress. In Russia during the term the pupils keep a homework diary. At the end of each term the form master puts final marks there. Parents should put signature in their diaries.

Conclusion: In Russia school year is divided into 4 terms, in Great Britain is divided into 3 terms. Children have vacations in Russia and Great Britain. They have many lessons and extracurricular activities, marks are different.

The appearance of school buildings in Russia and Great Britain

British children like their schools because appearance of schools are excellent. Many of them look prestigious. Some of them are like castles. They are well-equipped. Computers and modern equipment are in every classroom. All the pupils have there own lockers in the corridor. In most British schools each pupils has two lockers: a gym locker and a hall locker. The lockers are important and guarantee the safety of the pupils’ belongings.

The appearance of the schools in Russia is attractive too. There is a strict standard about the colors in the Russian classrooms and halls. The interior is mostly in green, yellow or white colors. But the computers, projectors are in every classroom too.

Many talks can be about the places for lunch. Canteens are light and big in Great Britain. Many children eat lunch at school. The food is very healthy there. Children can buy almost every kind of snack there, like sandwiches, sweets, cakes. There is salad and vegetables. There is also a soda fountain which is very popular among older students. All the students love to sit in the canteen and discuss the events of the day.

The canteen in Russia is a big dining-hall. Children of 1 - 4 forms eat after the second lesson, the pupils of 5 – 7 forms eat after the third lesson, and pupils of 8-11 forms eat after the fourth lesson. Saving money on food is considered to be essential. There are three cooks, two dishwashers, one manager of production and one barman. The buffet has much tasty and cheap food.

Conclusion: Schools in Great Britain are more convenient, they have lockers. They use modern equipment in both countries. In Russian and British schools there are good canteens.

School uniform in Russia and Great Britain


The school uniform in Great Britain appeared in the XVI century. It was dark blue color. But these uniforms were not to be worn by elite students; they were to distinguish the poor children attending charity schools. Only 300 years later the students of the best English public schools began to wear uniforms. The first school to introduce this uniform was Christ's Hospital and it was the oldest uniform of any school.

Nowadays in many schools in Great Britain pupils wear school uniform. The favorite colors are blue, grey, black and green. When there is more than one school in a town, a school uniform can make differences between schools (socks, ties, badges).

Typical British secondary school uniform consists of a blazer with school crest or logo, white or blue shirt, tie (it can be a distinctive sight), black, navy, grey or maroon trousers or skirt, grey or black socks (boys),white socks or black or skin-coloured tights or hold-up stockings (girls), plain black shoes (trainers may be allowed in summer),black, navy, grey or school colour pullover. Tartan skirt for girls is especially common in Grammar schools and Independent Schools.

In Russia school uniform appeared in 1834. This uniform was worn only by boys. In 1896 school for girls was created. School uniforms were abolished after the 1917 revolution, but were re-introduced in 1948. The style of Soviet school uniform was modernized in 1962, and since that time it was modified each decade.

Boys wore dark blue pants and jackets, girls — brown dresses with black aprons and black bows (on special occasions, white aprons and bows were worn). The members of the Young Pioneer organization (every student belonged to this organization), wore famous red neckties.

Special sport uniforms also existed for physical education classes. In the early 1980s, a dark blue three-piece suit was introduced for girls and the strict rules on haircuts were loosened. In 1992, mandatory school uniforms were abolished. Today, there is no unified standard uniform in Russia; certain schools may have their own uniform that students are required to wear.

Schools without a uniform may also have a certain dress code. There is also a modern-day tradition for girls to dress into brown Soviet-style school uniform for their graduation ceremony.We think when we dress uniforms, we will organize on our subjects in school and we achieve great success. In many schools uniform is not compulsory. Many schools in Russia and Great Britain have strict rules on wearing of make-up, jewellery or fashion clothing.

Conclusion: British school uniform is compulsory, in some Russian school children have dress code.

Conclusion


We have compared school education in Russia and Great Britain to determine common features, but we have found out differences.

In Russia and in Great Britain students have the right for education. In Great Britain Education is compulsory at the age of 5-16 years, from 6 to 15 years in Russia.

In Russia and Great Britain there is National Curriculum.

The education in Great Britain and Russia is free.

In Russia school year is about 210 days and it is divided for 4 terms, it ends in May. In Great Britain the year is about 39 weeks, 6 terms, they study to the end of June.

In Great Britain children study for 5 days. In Russia they study 5-6 days a week.

In Russia pupils of 15 years old take exams in Mathematics, Russian and two other subjects. They are awarded by a Certificate of Basic General Education. In the 11th form students pass exams –Mathematics and Russian, some other subjects that they can choose. They will be awarded by a Certificate of Secondary General Education.

Pupils take intellectual tests at the age of 7, 11 and 14 years old. At the age of 16 students take Common Entrance Examination and get General Certificate of Secondary Education and they leave school if they want. They can continue their studies in the sixth form at school and they pass the national examination called “A” levels at 18 years old. They need “A” levels to enter the University.

There are different types of marks in Russia and Great Britain.

In Great Britain school uniform is compulsory. The compulsory attribute of school uniform is emblem or a thing, a tie is a distinguish mark of school. In Russia there is a dress-code, in some schools pupils wear school uniform.

We have no lines, suspension and exclusion as punishments in Russia but we have report or detention too.

Our research work helps students to know more about school education in Russia and Great Britain As we can see education in Great Britain is a serious and useful part of their life too.

The opinions of Russian students about school education in Russia and in Great Britain

The methods of the research work.

We have made the questionnaire in the 7th form, 8th form. We have learned students’ opinions about school education in Russia and Great Britain.

The plan of the research work.

The first task - to prepare questions about school education in in Russia and Great Britain.

The second step - to ask students of our school about that theme.

The third step - to sum up opinions.

The questionnaire.

They told us where they would like to talk about that theme. The answers were different. 48% of students would like to learn about this theme. 20% of students do not want to know. 32% do not know exactly.

We asked students about subjects that they could choose for studying 76 % of pupils said “yes”, 8% did not want to choose, and 16% of students did not know.

The aim of next question was to define which of two systems is the most attractive for them – Russian or British one. The answers were different.

It was interesting to find out that mostly pupils would like to study in Russia – there are 78 % people. It was surprising that young people thought so. We thought that Russian students enjoyed education in our country. Other students (22%) would like to study in Great Britain.

Last question was about school uniform. 22 % of students wanted to wear school uniform, but 64% did not approve it, 14% had indefinite answer to the question.

Students in Great Britain do not like to wear school uniform because it can be boring and annoying at the end of school year.

Conclusion: Students of our school are curious people, they like to study in Russia, but they want to choose subjects, students do not want to wear a school uniform.

The results of practical part of the research work.

The results of our research work we can find in charts.

In charts you can see answers of 50 students.

Conclusion

During our research work the following tasks were completed: the material above that theme was systematized and analyzed; similarities and differences were determined; practical part of work was done.

The systems of education at schools in Russia and Great Britain were different but they have similarities, students attend classes in both countries. Systems of education in two countries had advantages and disadvantages. Russian students enjoy studying in Russia.

The sources of information

  1. Биболетова М.З. Английский язык: Английский язык с удовольствием/Enjoy English
  2. Учебник для 7 классов общеобразовательных учреждений.-Обнинск:Титул,2008.-160с.: ил.
  3. Учебник для 10 классов общеобразовательных учреждени.-Обнинск: Титул, 2010.-216 с.: ил.
  4. Голицинский Ю. Великобритания. -Санкт-Петербург:,2004.-480с.:ил.
  5. Жуков А.Д. Образование в России: Проблемы и решения. – Москва, ЭКМОС, 2010. – 154 с. Ковалёва, Г.С. Состояние российского образования / Г.С. Ковалёва // Педагогика. - 2009. - № 2. - С. 80 - 88.
  6. Кошманова И.И. 90 тем на английском языке .-м.: Айрис-пресс, 2003.-2-е издание.288 с.: ил Кузьменко, Н.Е. О модернизации образования в России / Н.Е. Кузьменко, В.В. Лунин, О.Н. Рыжова // Педагогика. - 2010. - № 3. - С. 107 - 116.
  7. Н.А. Савченко, Инновации в образовании: основания и смысл [Электронный ресурс]
  8. Н.А. Савченко, Инновации в образовании: сущность и социальные механизмы [Электронный ресурс]
  9. Немыкина А.И., Ракова К.И.120 устных тем по английскому языку. 5-11 класс. К., ГИППВ, 1997.-272 с. Российская Федерация. Законы / Закон Российской Федерации «Об образовании». - М.: Омега-Л, 2009. - 64 с. - (Законы Российской Федерации).
  10. Тарасюк Л.Н.,Цейкович К.Н. Образование в Великобритании.//Социально-политический журнал, №3,2009


Если страница Вам понравилась, поделитесь ссылкой с друзьями:

Партнеры и статистика