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Тематика: 
Иностранный язык
Автор работы: 
Салимова Динара
Руководитель проекта: 
-
Учреждение: 
МБОУ "Гимназия имени Подольских курсантов"
Класс: 
9

В индивидуальной исследовательской работе по английскому языку "Легендарный город Стамбул" автор систематизирует знания, полученные о городе и его самых ярких достопримечательностях, а также кратко, но емко рассказывает о его истории.

В процессе проведения работы над исследовательским проектом по иностранному языку на тему «Легендарный город Стамбул» обучающаяся 9 класса сообщает о том, что Стамбул - город-легенда, соединяющий в современном мире две части света: Европу и Азию. Для славянских народов этот город - часть истории. Если наш путешественник хочет познакомиться с Востоком, но не готов отказаться от своих европейских привычек, то город, соединяющий два континента, определенно для него!

Подробнее о работе:


В готовом индивидуальном творческом проекте по английскому языку на тему «Легендарный город Стамбул» автор сделала выводы о том, что город Стамбул - это сочетание современности и древних культур, которые тесно переплетаются в нем и не оставит равнодушным никого из тех, кто впервые посетит Стамбул. Уникальные сооружения древности уникальным образом сочетаются с современными отелями, клубами, торговыми центрами, ресторанами и, конечно же, базарами. Все это создано для того, чтобы каждый посетитель нашел именно то, что искал.

Table of contents

Introduction

  1. History of origin of the city of Istanbul
  2. The sights of the city
  3. Legends of Istanbul city

Sources of information
Conclusion

Introduction

Istanbul is a city of legend, connecting two parts of the world in the modern world: Europe and Asia. For Slavic people, this city is part of history. If you want to experience the Orient but are not ready to give up your European habits, the city that connects the two continents is definitely for you! Istanbul's splendor can't leave indifferent even those who have already seen a lot. Ankara is often said to be the heart and Istanbul the soul of the country.

And not without reason, because the second capital of Turkey is an open-air museum, where everyone can find an entertainment. The mixture of styles, eras and cultures, testifies to the long history and difficult fate of the former Constantinople. The capital of the Roman, Byzantine, Latin and later Ottoman empires, Istanbul incorporates the best of each empire. Europe and Asia are connected by two bridges that resemble the Brooklyn Bridge in New York, providing a fascinating view of the Bosphorus Strait.

1. History of Istanbul's origins


Istanbul experienced its "golden age" between 527 and 565. The city of half a million inhabitants became the most magnificent and powerful metropolis of the era. Istanbul was the capital of the New Rome - Byzantium and later the Ottoman Empire for more than 1600 years. 120 Kaisers and Emperors ruled the city at different times. "Land of the Blind" was the name given to the Asian coast by the Megarian chief Byzantine, for only the blind, in his opinion, could not appreciate all the advantages of the European part of the Bosphorus coast. Here, in 667 BC, he founded the colony of Byzantium.

The city quickly became an important trading centre and was conquered by the Persians a century later. After the city was liberated from the Persians, Sparta and Athens made periodic raids on Byzantium, which had a strategic role in the Black Sea trade of the ancient Greeks. During the civil war in Ancient Greece, the city was besieged by Philip II of Macedonia. The siege lasted for three years but Byzantium never fell. Alexander of Macedon failed to conquer the city either. In 196 Byzantium was conquered by Septimius Severus and became part of the Roman Empire. In 330, Emperor Constantine renamed the city after himself and proclaimed it the new capital of the Roman Empire.

In a short space of time the city grew to almost five times its original size. Town squares were erected and new roads built. However, almost none of the buildings from those years remain today. In 1204, Constantinople was subjected to the worst plunder in its history. The Crusader army of the 4th Crusade, led by the Venetian Enrico Dandolo, entered the city after passing the fortified redoubts and the bay of the Golden Horn. The pillaging lasted 58 days. Many works of art were taken out. This was the end of the great city of Constantine and Justinian.After a short reign by the Crusaders in 1261, the city experienced its second birth.

The magnificent examples of mosaics and frescoes in Kariye and the Fethiye Mosque are reminders of that time to this day. In 1361 the capital of the Ottoman state was moved from Bursa to Edirne. By the beginning of XV century Christian Constantinople, far from its former power, was just a small island in the boundless Muslim sea surrounding it. In 1452 Rumelihisar fortress was built in a very short time. Thus the last link connecting Constantinople with the Black Sea was broken. Trade had ceased - the trap for Byzantium had closed. Europe, in the face of what was happening, was inactive.

On 29 May 1453 Mehmed the Conqueror's janissaries entered the city that had fallen to the Turks after a long siege. The most glorious Ottoman sultan, in the words of his biographer "the man who opened a new era", saw himself as a new ruler of the world, a new hero of the epics of exploits, such as Alexander the Great was then. He proclaimed Constantinople as the capital of the Ottoman state and renamed it 'Istanbul', meaning 'to the city' in Greek 'istin polin'. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire, at the end of World War I, Istanbul was occupied by Allied forces. The War of Liberation launched under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk brought full independence to the country.

One of the greatest statesman, reformer and politician of the 20th century, Ataturk managed to make drastic changes in the life of his people, initiator of the cultural revolution in the full sense of the word, which no other of his statesmen had managed before. Ataturk succeeded in merging the traditional Turkic way of life with the Western way of life, on a much deeper level than it appears from the outside. Istanbul, however, has remained not only the biggest city in the country, but also the most special for the Turkish nation. As one famous poet in Turkey said: "The best thing about Ankara is the way back to Istanbul".

2. City sights


Blue Mosque

The Blue Mosque in Istanbul, or Sultan Ahmet Mosque, is the most important religious building in the city. The massive temple with 5 main and 8 auxiliary round domes and the 6 sharp pointed minarets got its name because of the interior covered with ceramic tiles with rich blue patterns. The Blue Mosque, built in the early 17th century. It is a silvery grey complex on the shore of the Bosphorus, surrounded by gardens and has a capacity of 10000 worshipers at a time. The Blue Mosque is considered to be the last masterpiece of classical Ottoman architecture. It was designed by Sedefkar Mehmed Agha, an Albanian of Albanian descent. The Blue Mosque in Istanbul was a fitting conclusion to the career of the elderly architect.

The main task set before him by the Sultan was to create a harmonious religious building, which would surpass the existing ones in size and wealth. The architect reached the goal: the massive squat domes overlapping each other are softened by the rising minarets. The Blue Mosque is 73 m long and 65 m high, with a dome at 43 m high on the outside and 23.5 m high on the inside. The project is clearly influenced by the Ayia Hagia Sophia and Islamic architecture, in particular the Süleymaniye Mosque, which was constructed half a century earlier during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The stone for the temple's construction - marble, porphyry and granite - came from all over Turkey.

Голубая мечеть

Grand Bazaar in Istanbul

The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is the world's largest covered market. Every day the market is visited by half a million shoppers and the curious. It sprawls over 20 hectares, with around 4,000 shops in 65 streets. There are a dozen restaurants, banks, vending machines, tea houses, snack bars, a post office and a police station.

Nuru Osmaniye. Once inside, the sheer volume of merchandise and the buzz and excitement of the exotic surroundings energise visitors, allowing them to spend hours on end.
Mehmet the Conqueror conquered Constantinople in 1453 and the city ceased to be Christian. At that time the sultan ordered the construction of a bazaar to promote trade. Over the centuries, the bazaar suffered from fires and even earthquakes, but the original layout of the streets and the houses, with their peaked roofs, connected by a labyrinth of narrow passages, is still intact.

The Grand Bazaar is divided into separate areas selling specific goods - such as antiques, leather, jewellery, spices and carpets - but once in the middle of the bazaar, it feels like a real maze with no way out. No matter how hot and crowded it gets, there's always a small café or counter nearby for a refreshing drink or to relax by the fountains at regular intervals. The vendors are often very friendly, so don't pass up the chance to have a cup of tea with them, gossip about the state of the world and haggle over any trinkets you might like.

Большой базар в Стамбуле

Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia is one of the main attractions of Istanbul, located in the historical center of the city, Sultanahmet district. This is one of the most grandiose and famous monuments of ancient Byzantium, which is a masterpiece of Byzantine architecture.Hagia Sophia was built in the 6th century by Emperor Justinian I and for almost a thousand years was considered the largest church in the world. Throughout its centuries-old history, this majestic structure has changed several roles: a church during the Byzantine Empire, a mosque during the existence of the Ottoman Empire, a museum after the formation of the Turkish Republic and again a mosque recently.

One of the most impressive features of the Hagia Sophia is the dome, which is considered one of the greatest engineering feats of the ancient world. The height of the dome is 56 meters, and its diameter is 32 meters. Recently, it has become a symbol of interfaith dialogue and cultural heritage, reflecting the unique combination of East and West in Istanbul.

Святая София

3. Legends of Istanbul


The Turkish Icarus and the Galata Tower.

This unbelievable story is also pure truth. Once upon a time, there was Ahmed Çelebi, nicknamed Hezarfen. All scientists are like scientists, but this guy was attracted to the sky. At first he built a flying machine with eagle's wings and tried several times to soar over the Okmeydana region.

Finally, in 1632, Hezarfen did a daring and romantically insane thing. He jumped off the top of the Galata Tower (55 metres by the way) on homemade wings. He decided to fly not through the narrow Golden Horn, but through the Bosphorus. The daredevil managed to fly three and a half kilometres and landed without a single injury on Doganjilar Square in Uskudar district.
Sultan Murad IV was looking out the window of Topkapi Palace at the same time. When he saw the sight, to say that he was astonished was nothing to say. Hezarthan was invited to court and rewarded with a sack of gold.

But the sultan's advisers advised him to keep Ahmed Chelebi away. Who knows what else the intrepid inventor was capable of. Murat IV listened to them and exiled Hezarthan to Algeria. There he died very young, aged 31.
It is rumoured that Hezarthan's brother managed to launch a manned rocket.

A tale of Galata Bridge

The Galata Bridge could have looked very different. The fact is that back in 1502, Leonardo da Vinci himself proposed to Sultan Bayezid ll his design for the Galata Bridge, the 'King of Bridges', a very unusual structure. The 126 blocks were to be supported on their own without any supports. Because of that, the bridge could be easily dismantled. In combat operations, such a feature could be decisive in warfare.

Leonardo was so confident in his calculations that he was going to be in charge of the construction. Even with the threat of execution in case of failure, which was often practised by Turkish rulers. The sultan was surprised by the unorthodox look and was afraid to put the plan into practice, fearing its unreliability. And in vain...In 2019, scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology conducted experiments with a scaled-down model of the bridge at a scale of 1: 500 Their conclusion was unequivocal: the great Leonardo's idea was quite viable. The bridge could not only withstand loads, but even earthquakes! Even the deformation of the supports had little effect on the stability of the structure.

The same conclusions were supported by an experiment carried out by the Norwegian architect Vebjørn Sunda back in 2001. He built a scaled-down replica of a bridge over the E-18 motorway in the town of As, near Oslo. Leonard's design was to have been made of stone, but in Norway, in order to keep costs down, other materials were chosen. The arches are made of glued pine and the railings are made of steel and teak.

Legends of the Golden Horn

Zeus sinned with Io, daughter of King Inakos of Argos. Being aware of the vengeful nature of his wife Hera, Zeus turned his beloved into a cow in order to hide her. Hera, having learnt about it, ordered the giant Argus with 100 eyes to guard the cow. Zeus commanded Hermes to free Io by killing the giant. He was able to trick Argus into sleeping and cut off his head.

Hera then decorated the peacock's tail with the giant's eyes and sent a huge gadfly on Io. It constantly stung its prey and chased it across countries and continents. Io fled across the Bosporus. From the two Greek words for "ox" and "pass" came the name Bosphorus.

Trying to ward off a gadfly. Io shook her head so hard that her horn sliced through the ground. And so a new horn-shaped bay was formed.
Why was it called a golden horn? According to one version, because of the golden hue of the water at sunset. According to the second, when the Ottomans conquered Constantinople, the inhabitants poured all the gold into the bay to save it from the Turks. This version is dubious, though. The Greeks called it Chrysokerax, which translates as 'Golden horn'.

There is another legend connected with the bay. On one shore stood a huge statue of a bull. The amazing thing was that once a year, the bull gave a mooing sound. Emperor Mauritius, out of harm's way, decided to drown the statue. The bull may still be buried in a layer of silt at the bottom of the Golden Horn.

Sources of Information

  1. History of the origins of the city of Istanbul.[ Электронный ресурс].
  2. City sights [ Электронный ресурс].
  3. Legends of Istanbul [Электронный ресурс].

Conclusion

In conclusion, the City of Istanbul is a combination of modernity and ancient cultures that are closely intertwined in it, thus creating a unique flavor and ambience that will not leave anyone indifferent to the first-time visitor to Istanbul. The unique structures of antiquity (magnificently made temples of antiquity, palaces, cathedrals, mosques with intricate patterns on the walls) are uniquely combined with modern hotels, clubs, shopping malls, restaurants and of course, bazaars. All this is designed to ensure that every visitor finds exactly what they are looking for.


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