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Исследовательская работа: 
The great female leaders who changed the course of history

7. Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher was an English politician and stateswoman. She was born on 13 October 1925 in the family of an owner of a grocery store. She graduated from Oxford University as a specialist of chemist.


They called you Iron lady...
Your enemies unflatteringly...
But the soul aimed to the highest...
And to be honest you were just so special...

You saved England at the crisis...
Though the measures were unpopular...
You threw the country into chaos...
And doubtlessly you`re a legend...

("In memory of Margaret Thatcher" Vladislav Kernis Amelin) [Translated by Akinin Mikhail]


Thatcher was the first woman who had become the leader of the Conservative Party in Great Britain (1975-1990) and the Prime minister (1979-1990). She gave the name to the political trend known as "Thatcherism".

Its essence boiled down to a sharp restriction of state intervention in the economy, the privatization of industries nationalized by the Laborites, the encouragement of private entrepreneurship through tax cuts.

In foreign policy, the main emphasis was placed on the strengthening of relations with the United States and supported Ronald Reagan's initiatives toward the USSR, to which both politicians were distrustful.

The Thatcher government confronted with the trade unions by suppressing the strike of miners and issuing a number of anti-union laws. On January 19, 1976 Thatcher made a sharp speech criticizing the Soviet Union.

Маргарет Тетчер

“A huge, largely land-locked country like Russia does not need to build the most powerful navy in the world just to guard its own frontiers. The Russians are bent on world dominance, and they are rapidly acquiring the means to become the most powerful imperial nation the world has seen.

The men in the Soviet politburo don't have to worry about the ebb and flow of public opinion. They put guns before butter, while we put just about everything before guns. They know that they are a super power in only one sense—the military sense.”

[1976 Jan 19 Mo Margaret Thatcher. Speech at Kensington Town Hall ("Britain Awake") (The Iron Lady)].

However, Thatcher was one of the first Western politicians assessing the reformist mood of the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev positively, who was the first to hold talks in London in December 1984.

She is known for her phrase about Gorbachev after these negotiations in 1988: “We're not in a Cold War now”, but rather in a "new relationship much wider than the Cold War ever was." In 1984 Thatcher went on a state visit to the Soviet Union and met with Gorbachev and Council of Ministers Chairman Nikolai Ryzhkov.

The contradictions in the party on further integration with Europe and the authoritarian leadership style of Thatcher led to her resignation in 1992. After holding an audience with the Queen, calling other world leaders, and making one final Commons speech, on 28 November she left Downing Street in tears. She reportedly regarded her ousting as a betrayal. Her resignation was a shock for many foreign leaders.

In 2013 she died of a stroke in London at the age of 87. Always a controversial figure, she has nonetheless been lauded as one of the greatest, most influential and widest-known politicians in British history, even as arguments over Thatcherism persist. [BBC NEWS 8 April 2013]

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