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It is believed that the location of houses was planned in a special way, for example the Egyptian pyramids, and they were created for accumulation of energy flows. Thus, the capital city is adorned with unique architectural buildings tab, which happened at the same time on 7 September 1947, the day that was considered the birthday of the city. The eighth skyscraper was never built, and the reasons why this did not happen, we will see below.

сталинские высотки в москве

I interviewed 26 students of the 5th and 6th grades. I asked them if they knew when and why the skyscrapers were built, what style they are of and what their nickname is among the guides.

The object of my research is the architecture of Moscow of the 1950s. The subject of research are the Stalin skyscrapers The aim of the study was to determine how students of grades 5-6 know the history and architecture of the 1950s and give them an idea of Stalin's skyscrapers as one of the symbols of Moscow. To achieve the set goal the following objectives were solved: 1. To identify if the students of my age know when these buildings had been built. 2. To search if the students know why these buildings had been built

The First skyscraper: the house on Kotelnicheskaya

House of workers of art on Kotelnicheskaya embankment (., 1, metro "China-town) built by the architects D. N. Chechulin. and Rostovskogo A. K. and Swivel located on the hill in Zayauzie is a very beautiful and cozy place. The chief architect of the skyscraper was listed as Stalin himself. Oversaw the construction of Beria.

здание на котельничьей

A 32-storey building, built in the so-called Stalin Empire style, decorated with bas-reliefs and obelisks, and tall is 176 m. the House is conceived and built as a starting point for all the streets leading to the river, and closes the East prospect of the Moscow river on the Kremlin. The construction of Stalin's skyscrapers in Moscow was carried out for the most part prisoners, they often posed for sculptures and compositions that adorn the building. House on Kotelnicheskaya was attached to the already finished building – residential 9-storey housing for security officers and their families — and perfectly entered in the General architectural complex. Perhaps that is why all work on the construction of the building, begun in 1949, was in charge of the interior Ministry. The construction was completed in 1952.

One wing of the house with the change given to military, the second – intellectuals. Many famous Soviet artists at different times have lived in it. Here lived the actress Faina Ranevskaya, Clara Luchko, Lidiya Smirnova, Nonna Mordjukova, Director Ivan Pyriev and his wife Marina Ladynina, the poet Alexander Tvardovsky, the ballerina Galina Ulanova, tamer Irina Bugrimova, the composer Nikita Bogoslovsky. In total, the complex has 700 apartments, there are shops, a post office and a cinema "Illusion". Note that the house entered the elite Moscow housing stock, and, of course, the rent was very impressive, not everyone can afford such costs, but with someone's light hand for a long time called the Bird of happiness on Swivel hill. He became the first commissioned object representing Stalin skyscrapers in Moscow.

Skyscraper often served as a backdrop for Soviet movies. For example, people came to meet the parents favorite Kostik from "the Pokrovskie gate". Some believe that here was shot the film "Moscow does not believe in tears".

Skyscraper second: House at the Red gates Built on the peak point of the Garden ring, 138-meter high building is located at the exit of metro station "Krasnye Vorota", whose name quickly became his guide. House at the Red gates, on Sadovaya-Spasskaya., 21/Kalanchevskaya, d. 1 was designed by architects A. Pushkinym and B. Mezentsev, and the construction was supervised by the Ministry of Railways. The Central building 24-storey giant was originally designed for the Ministry of transport engineering. The side building is residential, they are 284 apartments.
The building was unique because it was assumed not to disturb the functioning of the exit of metro station "Krasnye Vorota", which was used in the original method of freezing of the Foundation pit and construction of the building laid with a deviation of 16 cm, which was eliminated by the shrinkage of the house. Neither before nor after in the global construction practice, this technique was not used. This "skyscrapers" like the building of the Ministry of foreign Affairs, the project was not of spire. As they say, the spire was added at the direction of Stalin.

At the beginning of the 19th century on this place was the mansion of major-General Roofing, where he was born Mikhail Lermontov. In memory of this on the front of the building a memorial plaque.

The third skyscraper: the hotel "Leningrad"

A 17-storey building of Stalin skyscrapers in Moscow – hotel "Leningrad", is located at Kalanchevskaya street 21/40 (metro station "Kalanchevskaya" or "Red gate") is one of the most famous hotels of the capital. Finished in 1954, the house is 136 meters high, designed by architects L. M. Polyakov and A. B. Boretsky, delicately blended into an existing ensemble of Komsomol square. According to their plan, the hotel had to reproduce the motifs of Russian architecture of the 18th century - the so-called "Naryshkin style." This skyscraper is distinguished by elegance of exterior and refined splendor of the interior decoration, which includes elements of temple architecture and Moscow Baroque.

гостиница ленинград

Since this building was erected as the front facade of the capital, it was the most luxurious and expensive. 1 square meter cost 21 thousand rubles, whereas 1 m2 of the house on Kotelnicheskaya cost 5.5 thousand RUB History of Stalin's skyscrapers in Moscow knows of a more expensive construction at that time. The lobby is decorated with bas-reliefs, and the unique bronze chandeliers, garlands lights 5 floors. The total area of 330 rooms of the hotel is 25 thousand m2. Since 2008, the Leningradskaya Hotel is the international hotel chain Hilton as a hotel of the highest class. This is the smallest height of the seven Stalin's skyscrapers, only 136 meters.

The fourth skyscraper is the House of aviators At the end of 1954, the Stalinist skyscraper in Moscow joined the aviators building on Kudrinskaya square (up until 1992 the area of the Rebellion)., 1, metro Barrikadnaya, designed by architects M. V. Posokhin and A. A. Mndoyants Consisting of a Central (24 floors) and side (18 floors) buildings, a building with a spire reaches a height of 156 meters.
450 apartments at the time the house was distributed among the employees of the aviation industry, the nomenclature of the CPSU Central Committee, test pilots and astronauts. The building also offers the luxury and refinement of finish. Filmmakers often use the interiors of the Moscow skyscrapers in the filming of movies and documentaries.

Today the house is a Directorate of the company are responsible for the operation of a number of high-rise buildings of Moscow, including this building. In the premises of the basement and the first floor now house shops, bowling club, cellars are given under the underground Parking and garages.

The Fifth skyscraper of the foreign Ministry

In 1953, Smolenskaya-Sennaya square (building 32) commissioned another high-rise is a 27-story building, which houses three ministries – foreign Affairs, trade and external economic relations. The construction height is 172 m, the area of 65 thousand m2. Constantly there are 28 lifts, 18 of which are high-speed.

мид в москве

Designed by architects Gelfreich V. G. and M. A. Minkus, Ministry of foreign Affairs building – one of the skyscrapers, which has a five-pointed star on the spire, and originally, the plan was not his. It happened because in the construction I used an unusual method of construction of the building frame to its full height. Historians suggest that the tower style insisted Stalin, but according to specialists, the installation of the spire would create a load that the building could not withstand. Later was installed a lightweight spike. Another attraction on the facade of the building – the emblem of the USSR, mounted on a 114-metre altitude and remains there to this day.

The sixth skyscraper hotel "Ukraine"

The hotel, located on Kutuzovsky Ave., 2/1, from Kievskaya metro station, on Filyovskaya line was designed by a group of eminent architects A. G. Mordvinov, V. G. Kalish, V. K. Oltarzhevsky, etc. Various details of the project were developed by the specialists of up to two thousand people.

гостиница украина

The building is more than 88 thousand m, its height is 206 m including 73-meters of the spire. From the point of view of architecture this building is distinguished by the perfection of the composition: the Central building with tower topped with a spire balances the clear monumentality of the wings and corner towers and the vases, imitating sheaves of wheat, emphasize the palatial style of the building. The Central building was occupied by the hotel side was reserved for housing.

The opening of the hotel took place 25.05.1957 G. At that time "Ukraine" was the largest in Europe, today acquired the status of a luxury hotel of the European level.

The Seventh skyscraper: Moscow state University

In the list called "Seven Stalinist skyscrapers in Moscow" is a new building 36-storey University building of Moscow state University named after M. V. Lomonosov on the Sparrow hills (D. 1), first opened the doors on 1 September 1953.

мгу

Design of high-rise buildings was carried out by a group of architects under the leadership of L. V. Rudnev. During the construction of the building was used the latest technical solutions, which allowed to successfully construct a building of variable height on a very difficult terrain. The design of the facades and the creation of sculptural groups was entrusted to the workshop of Vera Mukhina. Given the 58-meter high spire, the height of the building is 240 m, and the step structure of the first two floors have a large area, allowing to arrange on the 1st floor of the huge lobby and on the 2nd — two majestic hall of columns, decorated with statues of great scientists. The luxurious interior of this temple of science and the striking marble stairs and various decorative elements reminiscent of the palaces of the Golden age. The audience placed in rooms starting from 3rd floor.

In the main building (sector "A") are administrative services, departments, auditorium and cultural centre of Moscow state University. The side wings reserved for housing for faculty and student dormitories, there is a basement and technical floors. Until recently, MSU was the highest in Europe.

Administrative building in Zaryadye

Stalin skyscraper in Moscow was initially planned in the amount of 8 buildings, and build the last of them, started and even built bunk concrete bunker and a technical floor according to the project of architect D. N. Chechulin.

зарядье

It was planned placement of the people's Commissariat of heavy industry, but after Stalin's death near the end of construction, all work was discontinued, and the construction of the house preserved. In 1967, using the existing Foundation was built the hotel "Russia", currently does not exist. The government of the capital to break at this place a large Park with entertainment area.

Conclusion

The results of my sociological poll are:

1. 60% of students don't know that skyscrapers were built in the 1950s

2. Only 8% of the students know that the guides call skyscrapers "sisters"

3. 42% of students know that only 7 skyscrapers were built

4. 80% of students do not know that the construction of the high-rise buildings was dedicated to the 800th - anniversary of Moscow

5. Only 23% of students know that skyscrapers were built in the style of "wedding cake"

Thus, Stalin's skyscrapers in Moscow – the legend-the house that became at that time the real embodiment of prestige of the country that won the war, and a symbol of the power of the Soviet Union, are today the hallmark of the capital. After all, the Stalinist skyscraper in Moscow,' which the whole world knows, is an interesting phenomenon in the world architecture.

In addition, the history of the construction of these buildings illustrates an epoch in the history of our country – the era of Stalinism. Study milestones the construction of skyscrapers contributes to the formation of historical consciousness.

Bibliography

1. Altrac W., Kern S. urban development in the shadow of Stalin. – M., 2015. - 416 p

2. Zubov A. B. the History of Russia XX century volume II. The era of Stalinism (1923-1953). – M., 2016.\\ ulit.me

3. Krushkov N. N. High-rise bildings in Moscow. Facts from the history of design and construction. 1947-1956. - Publishing house "Agni", 2007/ - 467 p.

4. Krushkov N. N. High-rise bildings in of Stalinist Moscow. - Publishing House "Aquarius", 2011. – 385 p.

5. Krushkov N. N. Stalinist skyscraper of Moscow. The legacy era. - Publishing House "Tsentrpoligraf", 2014. – 421 p.

6. Vaskin A. A. Stalin's skyscrapers, from the Palace of the Soviets to high-rise buildings. Moscow: Sputnik, 2009. – 262 p.

7. Vaskin A. A. Architecture and history of Stalin's skyscrapers. Moscow: Sputnik, 2006. – 347 p.

8. Vaskin A. A. Where the GUM was.../Rossiyskaya Gazeta, December 14, 2009

9. D. Khmelnitsky. Architect Stalin. – M., 2007. – 312 p.


Doliba Dima,
MBOU Gimnasium №17 Mytishchi


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